Manga (kanji: 漫画; hiragana: まんが; katakana: マンガ;About this sound listen (help·info); English: /ˈmɑːŋɡə/ or /ˈmæŋɡə/) consist ofcomics and print cartoons (sometimes also called komikku コミック), in theJapanese language and conforming to the style developed in Japan in the late 19th century.[1] In their modern form, manga date from shortly after World War II,[2] but they have a long, complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art.[3]

In Japan, people of all ages read manga. The genre includes a broad range of subjects: action-adventure, romance, sports and games, historical drama, comedy, science fiction and fantasy, mystery, horror, sexuality, and business/commerce, among others.[4] Since the 1950s, manga have steadily become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry,[5] representing a 406 billion yen market in Japan in 2007 (approximately $3.6 billion). Manga have also become increasingly[vague] popular worldwide.[6] In 2008, the U.S. and Canadian manga market was $175 million. Manga are typically printed in black-and-white,[7] although some full-color manga exist (e.g. Colorful). In Japan, manga are usually serialized in telephone book-size[vague] manga magazines, often containing many stories, each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. If the series is successful, collected chapters may be republished in paperback books called tankōbon.[8] A manga artist (mangaka in Japanese) typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company.[2] If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated after or even during its run,[9] although sometimes manga are drawn centering on previously existing live-action or animated films[10] (e.g. Star Wars).

"Manga" as a term used outside Japan refers specifically to comics originally published in Japan.[11] However, manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world, particularly in Taiwan ("manhua"), South Korea ("manhwa"),[12] and the People's Republic of China, notably Hong Kong ("manhua").[13] In France, "la nouvelle manga" has developed as a form of bande dessinée (literally drawn strip) drawn in styles influenced by Japanese manga. In the United States, people refer to manga-like comics as Amerimanga, world manga, ororiginal English-language manga (OEL manga).


 [hide] *1 Etymology


The Japanese word manga, literally translated, means "whimsical pictures". The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai (1798), and in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo (1814) and the celebrated Hokusai Manga books (1814–1878) containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai.[14] Rakuten Kitazawa (1876–1955) first used the word "manga" in the modern sense.[15]

History and characteristicsEditEdit

Main article: History of mangaHistorians and writers on manga history have described two broad and complementary processes shaping modern manga. Their views differ in the relative importance they attribute to the role of cultural and historical events following World War II versus the role of pre-War, Meiji, and pre-Meiji Japanese culture and art.

One view emphasizes events occurring during and after the U.S. Occupation of Japan (1945–1952), and stresses that manga strongly reflect U.S. cultural influences, including U.S. comics (brought to Japan by the GIs) and images and themes from U.S. television, film, and cartoons (especially Disney).[16] Alternately, other writers such asFrederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, and Adam L. Kern stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions as central to the history of manga.[17]

Modern manga originated in the Occupation (1945–1952) and post-Occupation years (1952–early 1960s), while a previously militaristic and ultra-nationalist Japan rebuilt its political and economic infrastructure. An explosion of artistic creativity occurred in this period,[18] involving manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka (Astro Boy) andMachiko Hasegawa (Sazae-san). [1]kami-shibai story teller from Sazae-san by Machiko Hasegawa. Sazae appears with her hair in a bun.Added by Dream FocusAstro Boy quickly became (and remains) immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere,[19] and the anime adaptation of Sazae-san continues to run as of 2009, regularly drawing more viewers than any other anime on Japanese television. Tezuka and Hasegawa both made stylistic innovations. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique, the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots. This kind of visual dynamism was widely adopted by later manga artists.[20] Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience also came to characterize later shōjo manga.[21] Between 1950 and 1969, an increasingly large readership for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjomanga aimed at girls.[22]

In 1969 a group of female manga artists (later called the Year 24 Group, also known as Magnificent 24s) made their shōjo manga debut ("year 24" comes from the Japanese name for 1949, the birth-year of many of these artists).[23]The group included Hagio MotoRiyoko IkedaYumiko OshimaKeiko Takemiya, and Ryoko Yamagishi, and they marked the first major entry of women artists into manga.[8] Thereafter, primarily women artists manga would draw shōjo for a readership of girls and young women.[24] In the following decades (1975–present), shōjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously evolving different but overlapping subgenres.[25] Major subgenres include romance, superheroines, and "Ladies Comics" (in Japanese,redisu レディース, redikomi レディコミ, and josei 女性).[26]

Modern shōjo manga romance features love as a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of self-realization.[27] With the superheroines, shōjo manga saw releases such as Naoko Takeuchi's Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon, which became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats.[28] Groups (or sentais) of girls working together have also been popular within this genre.[29]

Manga for male readers sub-divides according to the age of its intended readership: boys up to 18 years old (shōnenmanga) and young men 18- to 30-years old (seinen manga);[30] as well as by content, including action-adventure often involving male heroes, slapstick humor, themes of honor, and sometimes explicit sexuality.[31] The Japanese use different kanji for two closely allied meanings of "seinen"—青年 for "youth, young man" and 成年 for "adult, majority"—the second referring to sexually overt manga aimed at grown men and also called seijin ("adult" 成人) manga.[32] Shōnenseinen, and seijin manga share many features in common.

Boys and young men became some of the earliest readers of manga after World War II. From the 1950s on, shōnenmanga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypal boy, including subjects like robots, space-travel, and heroic action-adventure.[33] Popular themes include science fiction, technology, sports, and supernatural settings. Manga with solitary costumed superheroes like SupermanBatman, and Spider-Man generally did not become as popular.[34]

The role of girls and women in manga produced for male readers has evolved considerably over time to include those featuring single pretty girls (bishōjo)[35] such as Belldandy from Oh My Goddess!, stories where such girls and women surround the hero, as in Negima and Hanaukyo Maid Team, or groups of heavily armed female warriors (sentō bishōjo)[36]

With the relaxation of censorship in Japan after the early 1990s, a wide variety of explicitly-drawn sexual themes appeared in manga intended for male readers, and correspondingly occur in English translations.[37] These depictions range from mild partial nudity through implied and explicit sexual intercourse through bondage andsadomasochism (SM), zoophilia (bestiality), incest, and rape.[38]

The gekiga style of drawing—emotionally dark, often starkly realistic, sometimes very violent—focuses on the day-in, day-out grim realities of life, often drawn in gritty and unpretty fashions.[39] Gekiga such as Sampei Shirato's 1959–1962 Chronicles of a Ninja's Military Accomplishments (Ninja Bugeichō) arose in the late 1950s and 1960s partly from left-wing student and working-class political activism[40] and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of young manga artists like Yoshihiro Tatsumi with existing manga.[41]


In Japan, manga constituted an annual 406 billion yen (approximately $3.6 billion USD) publication-industry by 2007.[42] Recently, the manga industry has expanded worldwide with distribution companies license and reprint manga into their native languages.

After a series has run for a while, publishers often collect the stories together and print them in dedicated book-sized volumes, called tankōbon. These are the equivalent of U.S. trade paperbacks or graphic novels. These volumes use higher-quality paper, and are useful to those who want to "catch up" with a series so they can follow it in the magazines or if they find the cost of the weeklies or monthlies to be prohibitive. Recently, "deluxe" versions have also been printed as readers have gotten older and the need for something special grew. Old manga have also been reprinted using somewhat lesser quality paper and sold for 100 yen (about $1 U.S. dollar) each to compete with the used book market.

Marketeers primarily classify manga by the age and gender of the target readership.[43] In particular, books and magazines sold to boys (shōnen) and girls (shōjo) have distinctive cover art and are placed on different shelves in most bookstores. Due to cross-readership, consumer response is not limited by demographics. For example, male readers subscribing to a series intended for girls and so on.

Japan also has manga cafés, or manga kissa (kissa is an abbreviation of kissaten). At a manga kissa, people drinkcoffee and read manga, and sometimes stay there overnight.

There has been an increase in the amount of publications of original webmanga. It is internationally drawn by enthusiasts of all levels of experience, and is intended for online viewing. It can be ordered in graphic novel form if available in print.

The Kyoto International Manga Museum maintains a very large website listing manga published in Japanese.[44]


See also: List of manga magazines[2]Eshinbun Nipponchi; credited as the first manga magazine ever made.Added by Dream FocusManga magazines usually have many series running concurrently with approximately 20–40 pages allocated to each series per issue. Other magazines such as the anime fandom magazine Newtype featured single chapters within their monthly periodicals. Other magazines like Nakayoshi feature many stories written by many different artists, these magazines, or "anthology magazines", as they are also known (colloquially "phone books"), are usually printed on low-quality newsprint and can be anywhere from 200 to more than 850 pages long. Manga magazines also contain one-shot comics and various four-panel yonkoma (equivalent to comic strips). Manga series can run for many years if they are successful. Manga artists sometimes start out with a few "one-shot" manga projects just to try to get their name out. If these are successful and receive good reviews, they are continued. Magazines often have a short life.[45]


Kanagaki Robun and Kawanabe Kyosai created the first manga magazine in 1874:Eshinbun Nipponchi. The magazine was heavily influenced by Japan Punch, founded in 1862 by Charles Wirgman, a British cartoonist. Eshinbun Nipponchi had a very simple style of drawings and did not become popular with many people. Eshinbun Nipponchi ended after three issues. The magazine Kisho Shimbun in 1875 was inspired by Eshinbun Nipponchi, this was followed by Marumaru Chinbun in 1877, and then Garakuta Chinpo in 1879.[46] Shōnen Sekai was the first shōnen magazine created in 1895 by Iwaya Sazanami, a famous writer of Japanese children's literature back then. Shōnen Sekai had a strong focus on theFirst Sino-Japanese War.[47]

In 1905 the manga-magazine publishing boom started with the Russo-Japanese War,[48] Tokyo Pakku was created and became a huge hit.[49] After Tokyo Pakku in 1905, a female version of Shōnen Sekai was created and namedShōjo Sekai, considered the first shōjo magazine.[50] Shōnen Pakku was made and is considered the first kodomomagazine. The kodomo demographic was in an early stage of development of Meiji periodShōnen Pakku was influenced from foreign children's magazines such as Puck which an employee of Jitsugyō no Nihon (publisher of the magazine) saw and decided to Shōnen Pakku. In 1924, Kodomo Pakku was launched as another kodomomagazine after Shōnen Pakku.[49] In the boom, Poten was published in 1908 which comes from the French "potin". All the pages were full color influenced from Tokyo Pakku and Osaka Pakku. It is unknown if there was any other issues than the first.[48] Kodomo Pakku was launched May 1924 by Tokyosha and featured high-quality art of many members of the manga society like Takei Takeo, Takehisa Yumeji and Aso Yutaka. On some of the manga it usedspeech balloons for representation, other manga from the previous eras did not use speech balloons and were silent.[49]

Published from May 1935 to January 1941, Manga no Kuni coincided with the period of the Second Sino-Japanese WarManga no Kuni featured information on becoming a mangaka and on other comics industries around the world.Manga no Kuni handed its title to Sashie Manga Kenkyū in August 1940.[51]


Main article: DōjinshiDōjinshi, produced by small amateur publishers outside of the mainstream commercial market, resemble in their publishing small-press independently published comic books in the United States. Comiket, the largest comic bookconvention in the world with over 510,000 gathering over three days, is devoted to dōjinshi. While they are many times original stories, many are parodies of or include characters from popular manga and anime series. Somedōjinshi continue with a series' story or write an entirely new one using its characters, much like fan fiction. In 2007,dōjinshi sold for 27.73 billion yen (245 million USD).[42]

International marketsEditEdit

Main article: Manga outside JapanAs of 2007 the influence of manga on international animation had grown considerably over two decades.[52]("Influence" refers to effects on the comics markets outside of Japan and to aesthetic effects on comics artists internationally.) [3]The reading direction in a traditional mangaAdded by Dream FocusTraditionally, manga stories flow from top to bottom and from right to left. Some publishers of translated manga keep this format, but other publishers flip the pages horizontally, changing the reading direction to left to right, so as not to confuse foreign readers or traditional comics-consumers. This practice is known as "flipping".[53] For the most part, the criticisms suggest that flipping goes against the original intentions of the creator (for example, if a person wears a shirt that reads "MAY" on it, and gets flipped, then the word is altered to "YAM"). Flipping may also cause oddities with familiar asymmetrical objects or layouts, such as a car being depicted with gas pedal on the left and the brake on the right, or a shirt with the buttons on the wrong side.

United StatesEditEdit

Manga made their way only gradually into U.S. markets, first in association with anime and then independently.[54] Some U.S. fans became aware of manga in the 1970s and early 1980s.[55] However, anime was initially more accessible than manga to U.S. fans,[56] many of whom were college-age young people who found it easier to obtain, subtitle, and exhibit video tapes of anime than translate, reproduce, and distribute tankōbon-style manga books.[57] One of the first manga translated into English and marketed in the U.S. was Keiji Nakazawa's Barefoot Gen, an autobiographical story of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima issued by Leonard Rifas and Educomics (1980–1982).[58] More manga were translated between the mid-1980s and 1990s, including Golgo 13 in 1986, Lone Wolf and Cub from First Comics in 1987, and KamuiArea 88, and Mai the Psychic Girl, also in 1987 and all from Viz Media-Eclipse Comics.[59] Others soon followed, including Akira from Marvel Comics-Epic Comics and Appleseed from Eclipse Comics in 1988, and later Iczer-1 (Antarctic Press, 1994) and Ippongi Bang's F-111 Bandit (Antarctic Press, 1995).

In the 1980s to the mid-1990s, Japanese animation, like AkiraDragon BallNeon Genesis Evangelion, andPokémon, made a bigger impact on the fan experience and in the market than manga.[60] Matters changed when translator-entrepreneur Toren Smith founded Studio Proteus in 1986. Smith and Studio Proteus acted as an agent and translator of many Japanese manga, including Masamune Shirow's Appleseed and Kōsuke Fujishima's Oh My Goddess!, for Dark Horse and Eros Comix, eliminating the need for these publishers to seek their own contacts in Japan.[61] Simultaneously, the Japanese publisher Shogakukan opened a U.S. market initiative with their U.S. subsidiary Viz, enabling Viz to draw directly on Shogakukan's catalogue and translation skills.[53] [4]A young boy reading Black Cat in a Barnes & Noble bookstoreAdded by Dream FocusThe U.S. manga market took an upturn with mid-1990s anime and manga versions of Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell (translated by Frederik L. Schodt and Toren Smith) becoming very popular among fans.[citation needed]Another success of the mid-1990s was Sailor Moon.[62] By 1995–1998, theSailor Moon manga had been exported to over 23 countries, including China, Brazil, Mexico, Australia, most of Europe and North America.[63] In 1997, Mixx Entertainment began publishing Sailor Moon, along with CLAMP's Magic Knight RayearthHitoshi Iwaaki's Parasyte and Tsutomu Takahashi's Ice Blade in the monthly manga magazine MixxZine. Two years later, MixxZine was renamed toTokyopop before discontinuing in 2000. Mixx Entertainment, later renamedTokyopop, also published manga in trade paperbacks and, like Viz, began aggressive marketing of manga to both young male and young female demographics.[64]

In the following years, manga became increasingly popular, and new publishers entered the field while the established publishers greatly expanded their catalogues.[65] As of 2008, the U.S. and Canadian manga market generated $175 million in annual sales.[66] Simultaneously, mainstream U.S. media began to discuss manga, with articles in The New York TimesTime magazineThe Wall Street Journal, and Wired magazine.[67]


Manga has influenced European cartooning in a way somewhat different than the United States experience. Broadcast anime in Italy and France opened the European market to manga during the 1970s.[68] French art has borrowed from Japan since the 19th century (Japonisme),[69] and has its own highly developed tradition of bande dessinée cartooning.[70] In France, imported manga has easily been assimilated into high art traditions. For example, volumes 6 and 7 of Yu Aida's Gunslinger Girl center on a cyborg girl, a former ballet dancer named Petruchka. The Asuka edition of volume 7 contains an essay about the ballet Petruchka by Russian composer Igor Stravinsky and first performed in Paris in 1911.[71] However, Francophone readership of manga is not limited to an artistic elite. Instead, beginning in the mid-1990s,[72] manga has proven very popular to a wide readership, accounting for about one-third of comics sales in France since 2004.[73] According to the Japan External Trade Organization, sales of manga reached $212.6 million within France and Germany alone in 2006.[68] European publishers marketing manga translated into French include Glénat, Asuka, CastermanKana, and Pika Édition, among others.

European publishers also translate manga into German, Italian, Dutch, and other languages. Manga publishers based in the United Kingdom include Gollancz and Titan Books. Manga publishers from the United States have a strong marketing presence in the United Kingdom: for example, the Tanoshimi line from Random House.

Localized mangaEditEdit

A number of artists in the United States have drawn comics and cartoons influenced by manga. As an early example, Vernon Grant drew manga-influenced comics while living in Japan in the late 1960s and early 1970s.[74]Others include Frank Miller's mid-1980s RoninAdam Warren and Toren Smith's 1988 The Dirty Pair,[75] Ben Dunn's 1987 Ninja High SchoolStan Sakai's 1984 Usagi Yojimbo, and Manga Shi 2000 from Crusade Comics (1997).

By the 21st century several U.S. manga publishers had begun to produce work by U.S. artists under the broad marketing label of manga.[76] In 2002, I.C. Entertainment, formerly Studio Ironcat and now out of business, launched a series of manga by U.S. artists called Amerimanga.[77] In 2004 eigoMANGA launched Rumble Pak and Sakura Pakk anthology seriesSeven Seas Entertainment followed suit with World Manga.[78] Simultaneously, TokyoPop introduced original English-language manga (OEL manga) later renamed Global Manga.[79] TokyoPop is currently the largest U.S. publisher of original English language manga.[80]

Francophone artists have also developed their own versions of manga, like Frédéric Boilet's la nouvelle manga. Boilet has worked in France and in Japan, sometimes collaborating with Japanese artists.[81]


The Japanese manga industry grants a large number of awards, mostly sponsored by publishers, with the winning prize usually including publication of the winning stories in magazines released by the sponsoring publisher. Examples of these awards include:

The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs has awarded the International Manga Award annually since May 2007.[82]

See alsoEditEdit


  1.  Lent 2001, pp. 3–4, Tchiei 1998Gravett 2004, p. 8
  2. ↑ 2.0 2.1 Kinsella 2000[Need quotation to verify]
  3.  Kern 2006Ito 2005Schodt 1986
  4.  Gravett 2004, p. 8
  5.  Kinsella 2000Schodt 1996
  6.  Wong 2006Patten 2004
  7.  Katzenstein & Shiraishi 1997
  8. ↑ 8.0 8.1 Gravett 2004, p. 8,Schodt 1986
  9.  Kittelson 1998
  10.  Johnston-O'Neill 2007
  11.  Merriam-Webster 2009
  12.  Webb 2006
  13.  Wong 2002
  14.  Bouquillard & Marquet 2007
  15.  Shimizu 1985, p. 53–54, 102–103
  16.  Kinsella 2000Schodt 1986
  17.  Schodt 1986Ito 2004Kern 2006Kern 2007
  18.  Schodt 1986Schodt 1996,Schodt 2007Gravett 2004
  19.  Kodansha 1999, pp. 692–715, Schodt 2007
  20.  Schodt 1986
  21.  Gravett 2004, p. 8, Lee 2000,Sanchez 1997–2003
  22.  Schodt 1986Toku 2006
  23.  Gravett 2004, pp. 78–80, Lent 2001, pp. 9–10
  24.  Schodt 1986Toku 2006,Thorn 2001
  25.  Ōgi 2004
  26.  Gravett 2004, p. 8, Schodt 1996
  27.  Drazen 2003
  28.  Allison 2000, pp. 259–278,Schodt 1996, p. 92
  29.  Poitras 2001
  30.  Thompson 2007, pp. xxiii–xxiv
  31.  Brenner 2007, pp. 31–34
  32.  Schodt 1996, p. 95, Perper & Cornog 2002
  33.  Schodt 1986, pp. 68–87,Gravett 2004, p. 52–73
  34.  Schodt 1986, pp. 68–87
  35.  Perper & Cornog 2002, pp. 60–63
  36.  Gardner 2003
  37.  Perper & Cornog 2002
  38.  Perper & Cornog 2003, pp. 663–671
  39.  Schodt 1986, p. 68–73,Gravett 2006
  40.  Schodt 1986, p. 68–73,Gravett 2004, pp. 38–42, Isao 2001
  41.  Isao 2001, pp. 147–149,Nunez 2006
  42. ↑ 42.0 42.1 Cube 2007
  43.  Schodt 1996
  44.  Manga Museum 2009
  45.  Schodt 1996, pp. 101
  46.  Eshinbun Nipponchi
  47.  Griffiths 2007
  48. ↑ 48.0 48.1 Poten
  49. ↑ 49.0 49.1 49.2 Shonen Pakku
  50.  Lone 2007, p. 75
  51.  Manga no Kuni
  52.  Pink 2007Wong 2007
  53. ↑ 53.0 53.1 Farago 2007
  54.  Patten 2004
  55.  In 1987, "...Japanese comics were more legendary than accessible to American readers", Patten 2004, p. 259
  56.  Napier 2000, pp. 239–256,Clements & McCarthy 2006, pp. 475–476
  57.  Patten 2004Schodt 1996, pp. 305–340, Leonard 2004
  58.  Schodt 1996, p. 309, Rifas 2004, Rifas adds that the original EduComics titles wereGen of Hiroshima and I SAW IT [sic].
  59.  Patten 2004, pp. 37, 259–260, Thompson 2007, p. xv
  60.  Leonard 2004Patten 2004, pp. 52–73, Farago 2007
  61.  Schodt 1996, pp. 318–321,Dark Horse Comics 2004
  62.  Patten 2004, pp. 50, 110, 124, 128, 135, Arnold 2000
  63.  Schodt 1996, p. 95
  64.  Arnold 2000Farago 2007,Bacon 2005
  65.  Schodt 1996, pp. 308–319
  66.  Reid 2009
  67.  Glazer 2005Masters 2006,Bosker 2007Pink 2007
  68. ↑ 68.0 68.1 Fishbein 2007
  69.  Berger 1992
  70.  Vollmar 2007
  71.  Massé 2006
  72.  Mahousu 2005
  73.  Mahousu 2005ANN 2004,Riciputi 2007
  74.  Stewart 1984
  75.  Crandol 2002
  76.  Tai 2007
  77.  ANN 2002
  78.  ANN May 10, 2006
  79.  ANN May 5, 2006
  80.  ICv2 2007Reid 2006
  81.  Boilet 2001Boilet & Takahama 2004
  82.  ANN 2007Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan 2007